By Abadir M Ibrahim

This booklet assessments a number of the assumptions, hypotheses, and conclusions attached with the presumed position of civil society firms within the democratization of African international locations. Taking a comparative process, it appears at nations that experience effectively democratized, those who are caught among growth and regression, those who have regressed into dictatorship, and people who are presently in transitional flux and evaluates what function, if any, civil society has performed in every one example. The international locations discussed—South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt and Tunisia—represent a various set of social and political situations and assorted degrees of democratic fulfillment, supplying a wealthy set of case reviews. each one pattern nation additionally deals an inner comparability, as each one has traditionally skilled diversified phases of democratization. alongside the process each one case examine, the ebook additionally considers the impact that different generally studied components, akin to tradition, colonization, financial improvement and international reduction, can have had on person makes an attempt at democratization. the 1st vast paintings on civil society and democratization in Africa, the ebook provides new insights to the applicability of democratization idea in a non-Western context, either filling a niche in and including to the prevailing common scholarship. This e-book can be invaluable for students of political technology, economics, sociology and African reports, in addition to human rights activists and coverage makers within the correct geographical areas.

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Unless these words are clearly defined and their definition agreed upon, people will live in an inextricable confusion of ideas much to the advantage of demagogues and despots. Alexis de Tocqueville (Patrick, 2006, p. 14) Social scientists, philosophers, and researchers have been using the word “democracy” for centuries. Sealey, for example, traces the word to the classical period where finds it in Herodotus’s work (Sealey, 1987). Despite such enduring usage, or rather because of it, there is no consensus on its definition.

Udogu (2014) takes this point one step further arguing that the urban elite had a mentality and an education that led it to believe that the African masses did not need to have a voice, they needed to be guided by the new Europeanized elite. According to these authors, therefore, the nondemocratic form of government was installed by the colonial powers and the liberation leaders the institutional and political structured already in place and did nothing to change it. Young (1994) describes how the political elite did not passively continue the old structures; the new elite conceived of new and improved strategies and discourses to consolidate its exploitative position.

While for Huntington, a repetition of the democratic elections that proclaim the completion of the transition resulting in the second peaceful transition of power is enough, most of the definitions require more proof for the stability and habituation of the democratic process. Having thus defined consolidation, we will consider a state that has made a transition but not consolidated after more than one election as a democracy stuck in transition or in stagnation. A state that goes back from its gains and comes to a point where it can be considered dictatorial again it will be considered to have regressed from democracy.

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