By Samuel M. Makinda

A comprehensive examination of the paintings of the African Union (AU), with precise emphasis on its potential to fulfill the demanding situations of establishing and maintaining governance associations and protection mechanisms. Samuel Makinda and F. Wafula Okumu exhibit how Africa and, particularly, the AU can successfully addressed the demanding situations of creating and maintaining governance associations and defense mechanisms provided that they've got strategic leadership. Current debates on, and criticisms of, management in Africa also are analyzed in addition to key options for overcoming the limitations that African leaders face. Core subject matters coated comprise: the colonial rules of the eu powers the emergence of Pan-Africanism the construction of the association of African solidarity (OAU) in 1963 the evolution of the OAU into the AU in 2002 the AU’s skill to deal with poverty relief, clash administration and backbone, peacebuilding and humanitarian intervention.

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Therefore, the interests in liberation and integration were closely tied to identity. The humiliation of Africans took various forms. In some parts of Africa, the taking away of land and its appropriation for use by white settlers was a humiliation and an insult. It dislocated many Africans, some of whom abandoned ancestral burial grounds in order to make way for Europeans and their projects. Land dispossession was felt most deeply in settler colonies like Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The introduction of European systems of education brought enormous benefits to Africans.

The type of entity envisaged by the Casablanca group was a federal government based on the mobilization of resources along socialist lines. ’’22 Nkrumah repeatedly emphasized the socialist approach to Africa’s development: 22 OAU and mutual preservation Full economic and social development in Africa can only be accomplished within the optimum zone of development, which is the entire African continent, and under the direction of an AllAfrican Union government pursuing policies of scientific socialism.

In this context, Pan-Africanism was primarily about the interests and identity issues that underpinned the OAU: liberation and integration. Liberation was tied up with the norms of self-determination and human dignity. It would also lead to sovereign statehood. This is why Nkrumah linked Pan-Africanism to identity and freedom through the concept of the African personality. He argued: ‘‘The spirit of a people can only flourish in freedom. ’’16 Nkrumah also viewed Pan-Africanism OAU and mutual preservation 19 as a road to global power.

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