By Hakan Ringbom
This ebook explores the significance of cross-linguistic similarity in international language studying. Similarities will be perceived within the type of simplified one-to-one relationships or purely assumed. The ebook outlines the several roles of L1 move on comprehension and on creation, and on shut and far-off aim languages.
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Extra resources for Cross-linguistic Similarity in Foreign Language Learning (Second Language Acquisition)
Early studies of transfer were closely linked to contrastive analysis (CA). The underlying idea of CA was the applied linguistic idea that comparative descriptions could form a basis for facilitating language learning and language teaching. Large-scale systematic contrastive analyses were undertaken for that purpose in the 1960s, both in Europe and the US. In the US, Stockwell et al. (1965) described a sophisticated attempt to establish hierarchies of difficulty on the basis of structural and functional–semantic correspondences.
Lado (1957: 59) commented on the existence of such differences some time ago. A general difference concerns the approximate nature of all comprehension. 3 Even native speakers are far from perfect in interpreting a communication partner’s intentions. Learners have choice problems in both comprehension and production: they have to choose between competing activated items. But in production 27 MLM Ringbom Proof 2d 19 October 2006 12:35:18 Color profile: Disabled Composite Default screen 24 Cross-linguistic Similarity in Foreign Language Learning the learner is faced with a number of choices, not only between different words, but also between different forms of the same word.
There have, however, been no noticeable changes in the structure of laws and institutions. Languages have always occupied an important part in the Finnish school curriculum. Before World War II, German had a very strong position, while English was not much studied in Finland. Today, however, the situation is completely different, and the change from German into English as the first foreign language occurred in the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. The introduction of the comprehensive school in the late 1970s and 1980s brought further changes in the system.