By Alan T. Murray
This textual content brings jointly differing geographic views in modeling and research so as to spotlight infrastructure weaknesses or plan for his or her safeguard. delivering new methodological ways, the ebook explores the capability effects of severe infrastructure failure, stemming from either man-made and common failures. The ways hired are wide-ranging, together with geographic, financial and social perspectives.
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Additional resources for Critical Infrastructure: Reliability and Vulnerability (Advances in Spatial Science)
Nonlinearity, adaptability, self-organization, emergence etc. A variety of different measures would, hence, be required to capture all intuitive ideas about what is meant by complexity, and complexity, however defined, is not entirely an intrinsic property of the entity described; it also depends on who or what is doing the describing (Gell-Mann 1997). No attempts to make a formal definition of a complex system shall be undertaken, instead the author agree with Simon (1962): “Roughly, by a complex system I mean one made up of a large number of parts that interact in a nonsimple way.
Thus, the vertices can be generation units, stations, or users, and the edges can represent power lines. Albert and Barabási (2002), and Dorogovtsev and Mendes (2002), review recent advances made in the field of graph theory and network analysis. A number of statistical measures have been proposed to characterize the structure of complex networks, and the following concepts are central: x x x Average path length: the distance between two vertices is defined as the number of edges along the shortest path connecting them.
Antagonistic threats), A Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Electric Power Systems 35 a conditional approach can be used. Let Ai be an initiating event, then the conditional vulnerability can be defined as P ( max Q (t ) ! q | Ai ). t T (2) In a study of road network vulnerability, Jenelius et al. (2006) discuss the vulnerability concept, and referrers to the conditional probability as “exposure” (See further Sect. 4). There are obvious similarities to the risk and reliability concepts in the vulnerability measure above.