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Published by means of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic learn Series.

In a 1971 medical Committee on Antarctic learn record that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the subsequent statement: "People who learn sea ice within the Arctic Basin are frequently asked in the event that they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, they usually solution 'why trouble, it is the usual stuff." Noting this was once "fortunately precise to a substantial extent," they extra "It is apparent that destiny paintings will rely severely at the logistics amenities on hand to permit floor observations past the quick ice area in any respect seasons of the 12 months. of just about equivalent value could be the improvement of tools and recording apparatus suited to use within the polar atmosphere" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: a few Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited by means of G. Deacon, medical Committee on Antarctic study, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).

Lewis and Weeks made no particular point out of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the 1st passive microwave sensor grew to become operational in December 1972. lower than a yr later the enormous Weddell Polynya was once saw for the 1st time. possibly greater than the other improvement, this unforeseen characteristic illustrated the aptitude to enormously extend our wisdom of sea ice in the course of the program of spaceborne distant sensing. at the same time, it acted as a catalyst for an important raise within the point of analysis.

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Extra info for Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability

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Multi-temporal microwave satellite observations of snowpacks, Ann. , 17, 155-160, 1993. C. P. A. Maykut, Observations and theoretical studies of microwave emission from thin saline ice, J. Geophys. , 98, 8531-8545, 1993. O. F. Weeks, K. Morris, and R. Jaffa, The thickness distribution of sea ice and snow cover during late winter in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas, Antarctica, J. Geophys. , 101, 28,441-28,455, 1996. P. A. , Hobart, Tasmania, 1995. 1993. T. Ulaby, The active and passive microwave response to snow parameters, 1.

As retrieval tribution maps derived using the snow depth algo- of snow depth during melt periods will be grossly rithm. Snowdepth is calculated for eachday of 1988 inaccurate, we flag out these days, where the 7-day through 1994. 4. Monthly is above 5 cm d -•. 44øS, where the ice concentration is above 20%. 13øW)whereperennialice is present(Figure6). year mean is calculated from the monthly maps. If for more than three years the monthly averagesgive entireyear (Figure 6a). Highestsnowdepthsoccur only flagged values, these pixels are also flagged in during the summer months and reach a minimum in the climatology.

These maps are presented season effects. Subsequentto the regressionanalysis,we obtained snow measurementsfrom a cruiseof the R/V Po- The monthly maps presented in Plates 2 and 3 show that the deepest snow occurs in the Wed- larstern in the Weddell Sea during September and dell, Bellingshausen/Amundsen, and RossSea sec- depths are from the area east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula where the ship entered the ice pack on day 255. , 1991]. Highestsnow tors. Considerably less snow occurs in the eastern sectors(0ø- 180øE)in agreementwith averageinEast Antarctic region [Worby and Massore,1995].

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