By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler
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Additional info for Annual Review of Psychology, vol 54 2003
Are any of the factors we have discussed involved in other so-called addictions, such as addictions to food, sex, gambling, etc.? It is difficult to see how factors such as opponent withdrawal states or drug-induced cortical dysfunction would be involved in these other addictions. , but it is simply unknown whether such compulsive motivations involve any brain features at all similar to those associated with drug sensitization. Alternatively, these kinds of compulsions might only involve the activation of NAcc-related circuitry within normal limits, with other psychological factors playing more primary causal roles.
Sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: FHD ADDICTION 33 of drug pleasure. Instead, they accurately predict drug pleasure and often agree their drug use is not justified by the pleasure they get. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 54:25-53. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. Implicit Learning? S-R HABIT LEARNING What about the idea that drugs cause pathologically strong implicit learning (unconscious S-R or S-S learning processes), which is not necessarily conscious or accessible to cognitive declaration (Tiffany 1990, Robbins & Everitt 1999a, Berke & Hyman 2000, Everitt et al.
Another major problem for withdrawal theories is explaining why addicts so often relapse into drug-taking again even after they are free from withdrawal. After long periods of drug abstinence, the b-process should decay away. Yet elimination of withdrawal symptoms does not protect against future relapse, as the many recidivist graduates of detoxification programs can attest. One explanation for this is suggested by conditioned opponent theories, namely, that associative conditioning causes predictive drug cues to elicit conditioned tolerance and conditioned withdrawal essentially as conditioned b-processes (Wikler 1948, Schull 1979, Ramsay & Woods 1997, Siegel & Allan 1998).