By Erich Fromm

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Extra info for Anatomia della distruttività umana

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In breve, gli "istinti" sono le risposte alle esigenze fisiologiche dell'uomo, le "passioni" condizionate-dalcarattere sono le risposte alle sue "esigenze esistenziali" e sono specificamente umane. Mentre queste esigenze esistenziali sono le stesse per tutti gli uomini, gli uomini si distinguono fra di loro proprio rispetto alle passioni che li dominano. Per fare un esempio:l'uomo può essere guidato dall'amore o dalla passione di distruggere: in ciascun caso soddisfa uno dei suoi bisogni esistenziali: l'esigenza di «realizzare», o di muovere qualcosa, di «lasciare una impronta».

E. D. In questo libro ho usato il termine «aggressione» per l'aggressione difensiva, reattiva, che ho classificato come «aggressione benigna», mentre ho chiamato «distruttività» e «crudeltà» la propensione specificamente umana a distruggere e a ricercare il controllo assoluto(«aggressione maligna»). Ogni volta che mi è sembrato utile, in un certo contesto, usare il termine «aggressione» in un senso diverso da quello dell'aggressione difensiva, l'ho qualificato, per evitare equivoci. Un altro problema semantico è rappresentato dall'uso della parola «uomo» per denotare l'umanità o il genere umano, applicandola indiscriminatamente a uomo e donna, il che non è sorprendente, visto che la nostra lingua si è sviluppata in una società patriarcale.

Questo libro sostiene che esiste un'altra alternativa, e si pone il problema di delinearla. Dobbiamo distinguere nell'uomo "due tipi completamente diversi di aggressione". Il primo, che egli ha in comune con tutti gli animali, è l'impulso, programmato filogeneticamente, di attaccare (o di fuggire) quando sono minacciati interessi vitali. Questa aggressione "difensiva", «benigna», è al servizio della sopravvivenza dell'individuo e della specie, è biologicamente adattiva e cessa quando viene a mancare l'aggressione.

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