By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
What precisely are phrases? Are they the issues that get indexed in dictionaries, or are they the elemental devices of sentence constitution? Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy explores the consequences of those varied techniques to phrases in English. He explains a number of the ways that phrases are concerning each other, and exhibits how the background of the English language has affected note constitution. issues contain: phrases, sentences and dictionaries; a observe and its elements (roots and affixes); a observe and its types (inflection); a observe and its family (derivation); compound phrases; note constitution; productiveness; and the historic resources of English observe formation.
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Additional info for An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure
These include some of the commonest morphemes in the language, as I will illustrate directly. I will then discuss in more detail what aspects of the context can inﬂuence the choice of allomorph. How are the plurals of most English nouns formed? If one compares cats, dogs and horses with cat, dog and horse respectively, the obvious answer is: ‘by adding -s’. But English spelling is notoriously unreliable as a guide to pronunciation. In fact, this -s sufﬁx has three allomorphs: [s] (as in cats or lamps), [z] (as in dogs or days), and [z] or [əz] (as in horses or judges).
Foxes and oxen display different plural sufﬁx morphemes) while others use it in a more abstract sense (whereby foxes and oxen both contain the morpheme ‘plural’, realised by distinct allomorphs -es and -en). Whenever you encounter these terms, make sure you know in which sense they are being used. My own preference is for the concrete sense; but I also try to avoid occasions for possible misunderstanding by using instead of ‘morpheme’ the terms ‘afﬁx’, ‘sufﬁx’ and ‘root’, as appropriate, wherever possible.
The singular–plural distinction is the only grammatical distinction that is expressed morphologically in English nouns. Some readers (especially those that know something of languages such as German or Latin) may be surprised that I have said nothing about the ‘apostrophe-s’ form: pianist’s, man’s, child’s, children’s etc. – do these not count as further inﬂected forms of the lexemes , and , namely ‘possessive’ forms? g. ), and (24) and (25) show conclusively that what -’s attaches to is a whole noun phrase (that man you met (yesterday)), including whatever modiﬁers it may contain following the noun at its head (man, in this instance).