By Michael Christopher

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Some of the new landowners set themselves up as capitalist farmers. In 1912 some were said to have 'large rubber and coffee plantations' and were becoming very rich men. 34 Commonly these farmers either used their tenants' tributary labour or allowed them to commute it into cash and then used the money to pay hired workers, so that pre-capitalist rtlations provided the shade beneath which capitalism took root. Most landowners preferred to draw rent from their tenants rather than farming the land themselves, but they too relied on pre-capitalist ties.

50 The Emergence ofAjrican Capitalism It eneouraged a genuine spiritual earnestness and popular participation. It was more progressive than the Qadiriyya and provided a more effeetive base for resistanee to westernisation. 16 Outside Kano, the Hausa eommereial eommunity of Ibadan joinedthe Tijaniyya en masse in the 1950s, partly in order to reinforee their eommunal solidarity when threatened by eompetition from loeal Yoruba merehantsY The seeond organisation al innovation was the Wahhabi movement which first touehed West Africa in the 1930s but beeame established after 1945, mainly in Bamako and other towns of modem Mali, through the teaehing of loeal students retuming from the Azhar university in Cairo.

A term deriving from anatomy, a science whose demonstration requires that the subject be dead', 47 and there are many who would like an invitation to the funeral. I st"ill hope for recovery, however, because I see the concept as potentially a valuable way of generalising about the enormous variety of circumstances and consequences attending the emergence of capitalism in different parts of Africa. But to accommodate that diversity, the theory must be made more flexible. Two suggestions might be made.

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