By David Levinson

An exam and comparability of the ways that diversified cultures exhibit and unravel clash. appears at a number of varieties of aggression between members and teams, together with kin violence, capital punishment, animal cruelty and rites of initiation, and on the resolutions tried.

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Last, larger cultures with centralized political leadership vested in a chief or king use capital punishment as a social control mechanism to publicly demonstrate—and thereby reinforce—the power of the chief or king. See also BANISHMENT; CRIME; FEUDING. Otterbein, Keith F. (1986) The Ultimate Coercive Sanction: A Cross-CulturalStudy of Capital Punishment. COMBATIVE SPORTS Combative sports are amusements or recreCOMBATIVE ational activities played SPORTS by two or more opponents (individuals or teams) that involve direct or indirect (through a weapon or simulated weapon) physical contact or, in the absence of physical contact, are warlike in nature and require the use of real or substitute weapons.

Despite the acceptance of death-hastening behavior in some societies and the role played by decrepitude in deciding who dies, it is also important to note that in some societies adult children kill their parents for other reasons. Perhaps the most common reason is that sons desire resources such as money, land, status, or power controlled by their fathers. Killing their father may be the quickest means to obtaining these resources for adult sons who no longer want to wait. This situation occurred in peasant communities in Europe in the past where fathers controlled the family farmland and, therefore, the lives of their adult sons.

Bullfighters have almost always been men with attempts by women to become bullfighters usually resisted. Cockfighting is a popular sport in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Latin America, especially in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Haiti. Cockfighting involves the breeding and training of game cocks for the purpose of pitting them against each other in fights. Cockfighting is a broadly popular activity in cultures where it occurs. Where legal, it is regularly scheduled in Cockfighting pits; where illegal, it occurs on a more informal basis.

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