By Richard Barras

This two-volume publication explores how the good structures of britain undergo witness to 1000 years of the nation’s heritage. In all ages, funding in iconic structures reaches a climax while the existing mode of creation is working such a lot successfully, surplus wealth is such a lot considerable, and the dominant type principles best. in the course of such sessions of balance and prosperity, the call for for brand spanking new constructions is powerful, structural and stylistic options abound, and there's fierce pageant to construct for lasting popularity. every one such climax produces a distinct classic of hegemonic structures which are monuments to the wealth and gear of these who governed their international.

This moment quantity offers 3 case stories of iconic development funding from the eighteenth century to the current day. in the course of the eighteenth century the wealth of the nice landed estates funded the golden age of kingdom condominium development through aristocracy and gentry. in the course of the 19th century the economic Revolution unleashed an unparalleled wave of infrastructure funding and civic construction by means of the ascendant capitalist type. because the overdue 20th century the facility of worldwide monetary capital has been symbolized by means of the relentless upward thrust of urban centre place of work towers. a last bankruptcy argues that those diversified kinds of hegemonic development are a actual manifestation of the underlying rhythm of English history.

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It was a settlement which led as eminent a foreign observer as Voltaire to characterize England as the ‘land of liberty’, in which freedom of speech, of worship, and of the press were guaranteed by the rule of law and a balanced constitution (Hoppit 2000: 7). The new political system embodied the ideals of trust and consent espoused by John Locke, the country’s leading philosopher, in his Two Treatises of Government first published in 1690 (Locke 1988). The revolutionary settlement provided the ideal conditions for the landed elite to re-establish its hegemony through a process of peaceful counter-revolution.

An unlikely link was thereby made between a post-revolutionary country house in Norfolk, politically unwise in its palatial pretensions, and a prerevolutionary imperial palace in Russia, autocratically confident in its limitless excess. Together they offer a lasting memorial to the exercise of power, the accumulation of wealth, and the indulgence of taste in Georgian England. 6 Landed Supremacy 5 Ancien Régime ‘After 1688 the heroic age of English politics is over’ (Hill 1969: 213). Radicalism faded as the permanency of the revolutionary settlement, the limits of constitutional monarchy, and the supremacy of Parliament became accepted across the political spectrum.

As living conditions deteriorated towards the end of the century, so the incidence of riots and strikes increased. Ideal conditions for the ferment of labour unrest were created by the upheavals of rapid industrialization and urbanization, intensified by the revolutionary currents emanating from France. Following an unprecedented wave of unrest during the revolutionary 1790s, the government passed the Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800, in an attempt to combat industrial disputes. However, these acts achieved only limited success.

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