By R. W. Fairbrother (Auth.)

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The efficacy of this method is increased by the addition of some reducing substance to the medium. The reducing agents commonly employed are glucose and pieces of sterile tissue, such as muscle or kidney. Anaerobiosis is also assisted by layering the surface of the medium with sterile vaseline or paraffin. Cultures, so prepared, are incubated in the ordinary way. (2)* Oxygen may also be removed from the atmosphere by means of pyrogallic acid or by the growth of other bacteria ; the latter procedure is not, however, employed as a routine measure.

Rubrum pigment-formation is most marked under reduced oxygen pressure. Pigment production is facilitated by growth at relatively low temperatures ; in many cases it is formed more readily on incubation at between 20°-30° C. than at 37° C. Certain media, such as the potato, favour pigment formation, which is usually more marked in a freshly isolated organism than in one conserved on artificial media for some time. Little is known about the exact chemical nature of the different pigments ; in only a few cases has t h e constitution been determined.

A useful modification of the Mclntosh and Fildes' jar is t h a t by Wilson. This jar is constructed of a copper alloy, and consequently can stand much greater strains than the glass jar. Air is first removed by means of a vacuum pump and hydrogen is then slowly added ; an electric current is then passed through. The main disadvantage of this particular jar is t h a t the contents are not visible and so the behaviour of the cultures cannot be studied without the inconvenience of opening the jar and removing the tubes and plates.

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