By Kurt Hollocher

This publication is an illustrative advent to metamorphic rocks as obvious within the box, designed for complex highschool to graduate-level earth technology and geology scholars to jump-start their observational talents. as well as images of rocks within the box, there are many line diagrams and examples of metamorphic positive factors proven in skinny part. the skinny part photographs are all at a scale and in a context that may be with regards to perspectives visible within the box via a hand lens.

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Quartz c-axis alignment, caused by deformation, can be preserved and measured to aid interpretation of geologic structures. Muscovite or biotite, even if quite sparse, can define foliations, and minerals such as actinolite and sillimanite can define lineations. Deformed quartz grains or pebbles can define lineations and foliations too, but they may be subtle. Detrital minerals other than quartz, such as tourmaline and zircon, may occur, and have their own uses for provenance determination. With quartzites it is their simplicity and distinctiveness that are their charms: they are recognizable as quartzites even where deformation has thinned them from hundreds of meters to only centimeters.

11 Outcrop photographs showing the effects of deformation-induced grain size reduction (A, B) and the effects of post-deformation recrystallization (annealing; C, D). A) The right side is a relatively undeformed granitic gneiss. Across a narrow boundary, the gneiss to the left has been sheared in a sinistral sense (yellow arrow, see Figs. 1E, F) and has a m ­ uch-reduced grain size. B) To the upper right is a granitic gneiss with large feldspar augen and a horizontal foliation (blue line). This was then deformed by sinistral shear across a narrow boundary near the center of the image (blue arrow), and parallel to the pencil.

The gray rock is a garnet-bearing charnockitic gneiss (charnockite is an orthopyroxene-bearing granite). The white dike cutting through the charnockite is marble, 10–20 cm thick. The marble is interpreted to have flowed in the solid state into an opening fracture in the gneiss. This marble dike has the same texture, mineralogy, and mineral proportions as large marble bodies nearby, so it is unlikely to be a fluid-deposited vein or a carbonatite dike. The marble contains numerous angular fragments of the host gneiss as xenolith-like b­ reccia fragments.

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