By Majid Fakhry

The 1st complete survey of Islamic philosophy from the 7th century to the current, this vintage discusses Islamic notion and its impact at the cultural elements of Muslim lifestyles. Fakhry exhibits how Islamic philosophy has from the earliest occasions a particular line of improvement, which provides it the harmony and continuity which are the marks of the good highbrow pursuits of historical past.

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He and his father, Ibrahim (d. ~3 There were other astronomers who made significant contributions during Harnn's time. 'Umar b. 24 Mashallah (d. j al-Dhahab, VIII, 291-92. 20 Mukhta~ar, p. 131. Cf. Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah, 'Uyon, I, 175; Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat, p. 65; alQifti, Tatrkh, p. 38o. 21 See infra. 22 Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 364, and al-Fihrist, pp. 425-26; Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat, pp. 65-66. 23 Sa'id, Tabaqat, pp. 49-50; al-Qifti, Tatrkh, p. j, VIII, 290-91; al-Fihrist, p. 395ยท 24 Al-Fihrist, p.

23 f. (Henry, pp. ). 24 THE LEGACY OF GREECE, ALEXANDRIA, AND THE ORIENT The author of the Theologia also gives Plato the credit for introducing the distinction between sensible and intelligible entities and for ascribing to the latter the character of permanence and immutability and to the former that of perpetual flux. 94 A too literal interpretation of Plato might lead one to believe that the Pure Good was supposed to have created Reason, Soul, and Nature in time. However, Plato introduced the concept of time in his account of the beginning of creation, in emulation of the ancient philosophers, simply to underscore the distinction between the superior, primary causes and the inferior, secondary causes.

Many of his own translations were revised and fresh translations made as the demand for greater textual accuracy increased. The beginnings of the ninth century witnessed a genuine scramble for philosophical and scientific material, in which well-to-do patrons vied with the caliphs themselves. At no time had the process of translation grown out of individual initiative or devotion to pure scholarship. Like most of the literary disciplines which the Arabs cultivated, such as belles lettres, verse writing, and narrative, the philosophical and scientific output was dependent on the generosity or interest of wealthy patrons.

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