By Rudolf Thurneysen

Even though the publication was once basically meant for philologists--its goal being, within the author's phrases, 'to make previous Irish available to these accustomed to the comparative grammar of the Indo-European languages'--it has been for greater than a iteration the traditional paintings for all who've made previous Irish their distinct examine.

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While the National Curriculum was not intended as an explicit language or EAL policy, it has consolidated the ways in which EAL learners are conceptualised and catered for in the curriculum. Central to the National Curriculum is the assumption that irrespective of the diverse social, language and ethnic backgrounds of the student population, developmental processes and learning goals are the same for all. This approach, together with the mainstreaming policy for EAL, means that conceptually there is no need for separate and dedicated curriculum space for EAL.

Rather, students from lower SES backgrounds start lower in reading achievement, but then make more rapid growth in the primary grades, and go on to demonstrate slower growth in the upper-elementary and middle school grades, compared to their peers with higher SES. Students in schools with high concentrations of poverty can be expected to make even slower growth in later grades. This pattern of findings may be related to the fact that early reading instruction and assessment tend to focus on decoding skills which are largely rulegoverned and sensitive to instruction whereas at later grades the focus of instruction and assessment is on reading comprehension, which is strongly related to vocabulary knowledge and less capable of being developed through direct instruction.

G. g. through discussion, dictionary use, or L1 electronic or text resources]), (b) instruction connects to students’ lives by activating their prior knowledge which is often encoded in their L1, (c) instruction affirms students’ academic, linguistic and cultural identities by enabling them to showcase their literacy accomplishments in both L1 and L2, and (d) students’ knowledge of and control over language is extended across the curriculum through instructional strategies such as encouraging them to compare and contrast L1 and L2.

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